Rules to Better Marketing

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  1. Do you bring evaluation forms to every event you speak at?

    ​The best way to find out how your clients and customers think about you is to ask them. If you're not up to putting your pride on the line by asking them yourself then the next best way is to use surveys or evaluation forms. It's discrete, impartial and gives the evaluator a chance to add comments that may be difficult to say to you in person.

    ​​At SSW we bring our eval forms to every event we run or speak at. This allows us to reflect on our performance and run some quantitative analysis on the survey results. Take a look at our Speakers and Presentation Evaluation Form.​

  2. Do you check the calendar when planning an event?

    When planning an event, everything revolves around the date so it’s vital to be sure there are no potential clashes or conflicts. We recommend using a SharePoint calendar​, to let employees and the public keep up to date with what your organisation is holding or attending. It is best to have more than 1 date in mind for your event when you start planning, as this affords you flexibility if your first choice of date won’t work out.

    Be sure to check the dates and times of other events happening for that day. Depending on your event, it might also be worth looking for events on either side of your date, in case one of the events will be especially exhausting or costly, as this is likely to make people less interested in attending a second event right away. ​

  3. Do you contact the media from time to time?

    It is important for us to contact the media from time to time as they are the people who can get our products and services out to the world easily. It is a good way to advertise products.

    When you find a media contact you think is appropriate to contact, add them to CRM then tag them as MEDIAJ - Media - Journalist.

    Then send an email like this:

    Hi XXX,

    My name is Adam Cogan and I just checked out your site www.theirsite.com

    I saw your column XXX and thought it wouldn't hurt to tell you more about SSW XXX product​ that does XXX.

    More than happy to give you a free copy and more information. Please reply to this email if you want one.

    Thanks, Adam Cogan
    http://www.ssw.com.au

  4. Do you customize your approach to your target market?

    Every target market is different, and each one will respond to different stimuli that tickle their particular fancy. It is a good idea to customize your marketing approach to consider the particular interests and needs of that group, both in terms of the substance of your pitch, and its style.

    For example, say you are trying to sell your car. It's a nice new Holden, with a V8 under the hood and shiny new mag's. If an elderly person comes to have a look at your car, how do you sell it to them? You need to emphasise the features that will appeal to them.​

    At SSW, when a business owner walks in as opposed to a developer, we have to modify our pitch. While a business owner would probably be more interested in the general goals and how our solution is going to affect his business, a developer is more likely to want to know the technical details of the job and how it will be implemented.

    The same applies to the style in which you put your case forward. Everyone has different taste when it comes to the way that they respond to a marketing pitch. Some people like simplicity so it would be useful to use diagrams, examples, and to make it logically structured. Some people like detail so you should dot the i's and cross the t's. Some people want to make a decision immediately - be prepared to accommodate this. Finally, some people want to think about it - again, be prepared for this scenario.

    Following these simple rules will greatly enhance your chance of marketing success!​

  5. Do you follow the campaign checklist for every marketing campaign?

    ​​One of the most effective ways of launching an effective marketing campaign is to follow a checklist that includes company tried and tested strategies. This checklist should be filled out with the campaign details and then followed to execute the campaign.​

    Pre-Campaign Stage

    1. Select a name for the campaign 
    2. Define the goals of the marketing campaign 
    3. Define who is your target audience 
    4. Summarize buyer persona 
    5. Identify the 10 industry leaders (people) with large following we will target for promotion
      1. Create emails to send to each as per the rule of 
      2. Create social media updates to send to each as per the rule do you contact industry influences to promote your campaigns? 
    6. Identify companies and website with large followings we will target for promotion (ie Microsoft divisions)
      1. Create emails to send to each 
      2. Create social media updates to send to each

    ​Content Promotion

    Content promotion strategy 

    1. Define type of campaign 
    2. Define Go live Date
    3. Define the Call to action 
    4. Create the page to promote the campaign
    5. Add the campaign (if applicable) to the SharePoint list
    6. Optimize the page for SEO
    7. Add promotional banner to the homepage
    8. Add promotion to the monthly newsletter
    9. Add to the company blog
    10. Schedule the social media updates in Buffer
    11. Promote event in LinkedIn groups and Google+
    12. Pay Per Click
      1. Facebook post promotions
      2. Google AdWords
      3. LinkedIn ads
    13. Work with SSW developers and account managers to promote the webinar to 3 of their clients or network each via phone call and email.
    14. Have SSW employees promote event over social media twice leading up to the webinar

    Autoresponders

    1. Add relevant content to an auto-responder email campaign
    You can find a template to follow at SSW-Marketing-Campaign-Checklist-TEMPLATE_v1.docx
  6. Do you follow up with people who register for Webinars?

    One of the best ways to generate new opportunities for your business is to hold a webinar. It is very important that you follow up with each attendee after each webinar otherwise you will waste the opportunities you have created. After each webinar you should complete the following:

    1. For all new prospects

    1. After each webinar someone must call each person who registers (based in your region), offer them the video and ask them the following questions:​
      1. Did you attend the webinar? 
      2. Why did you attend the webinar?
      3. What did you get out of the webinar? 
      4. What is your biggest challenge you are currently facing? 
      5. Is there any way SSW can help you with that challenge? 
      6. What does your business do?
      7. What is your role in the business? (Responsibilities) 
    2. Send an email to new prospects including the following:
      1. Video of the webinar 
      2. Any related resource that they might need 
      3. Introduce them to an Account Manager
    3. If they are taking the course from outside your region (and you cannot provide your service to them) then send them an email including the following:
      1. Video 
      2. Ask them if your business can help them in any way
    4. 2. For Existing clients

      1. After each webinar you should organize an account manager to call the client; the account manager will ask the following questions:
        1. Did you attend the webinar? 
        2. Why did you attend the webinar?
        3. What did you get out of the webinar? 
        4. What is your biggest challenge you are currently facing? 
        5. Is there any way our business can help you with that challenge? 
      2. The account manager will send an email including the following (marketing should provide the account manager with the template for this email:
        1. Video of the webinar 
        2. Any related resource that they might need 
        3. Action step for the next contact 

      3. Add all people who register to the monthly newsletter list

    You can use this template to track the calls and as an agenda got your phone call.

    ​​
  7. Do you have a consistent brand image?

    ​Once you have figured out your brand image we think that the most important thing is sticking to it and applying it in every little facet of your business. As you're surfing the SSW website you'll notice a very consistent approach to branding. Our fonts, tables and headings are in exactly the same format and we have applied this to our email signatures, product banners, newsletters and company brochures.

    ​Know more on Rules To Better Branding​.​

  8. Do you have a good intro and closing for your product demonstrations?

    It is important to frame a product presentation with solid introduction and closing statements. 

    ​Intro: “Hi, I’m Steve here to show you what I just did”
    Closing: “Thanks for watching”

    ​​Figure: Bad example - This closing statement ends the video abruptly, and doesn’t leave the viewer satisfied​

    Intro: “Hi, I’m Steve from SSW and I’m going to show you how our latest feature – the project breakdown report – can give you an overview of where your employees are spending their time.​
    Closing: “I’ve just demonstrated the usefulness of a project breakdown report to understand what it is your employees are working on”

    ​​​Figure: Good example - The opening and closing statements back each other up, and give the demonstration a sense of purpose​


  9. Do you have a marketing plan?

    If you were going to build a house, you would hope that the architect and builders are working together using architectural plans and blue prints as a guide. So why would trying to build a solid customer base or market share be any different?

    At SSW we realize the monumental importance of a marketing plan. Although we recognize that in many cases marketing plans get filed away in the closet, until its time to get a business loan it's most effective when it acts as a blue print for all the marketing activities a company undertakes.

    ​Here are some of the important points to consider in a marketing plan.

    • Sets out your marketing goals and objectives then aligns them with overall business goals and strategy
    • Sets out a time frame for achieving its goals
    • Identifies a target market and segmentation strategy
    • How you will position and differentiate your product
    • Competitors and industry analysis
    • Identifies current and proposed marketing methods
    • Includes marketing reports (historical and forecasts) 
    • It sets the criteria which the plan will be assessed for success or failure

    The most important thing to remember about a marketing plan is that it is a work in progress. Always needing to be reassessed and changed to adapt to the dynamic business environment.

  10. Do you have a minimum number for live events

    Having a minimum number for live events is important so everyone is on the same page. We find that a good minimum for live events​ is 6 people.​

    ​​​It is important not to cancel live events because people who have already registered become disappointed in the business and the business loses credibility​. At times people who have already booked tickets, have also booked accommodation and air fares which causes additional pain to everyone. Having a reasonable number of attendees to attend each event will reduce these issues.

    If you are running these events for lead generation purposes then not covering event costs with ticket sales isn't a problem. Additionally if you don't run a lead generation event you potentially lose the leads you have.

  11. Do you have a waiting area that reinforces your marketing profile?

    ​We believe in reinforcing your company profile at every appropriate opportunity. The appearance of your office to your company profile is like your clothes to your personal profile, and although it may appear odd to cover yourself with marketing paraphernalia as you walk down the street, it's good business sense to use your office as a marketing tool.

    At SSW we direct all our visiting clients into the boardroom for a brief period, which contains useful information about us, such as framed degree's and information and testimonials from our long list of satisfied customers. ​

  12. Do you identify your target market?

    ​It's important to identify the market which will gain you the maximum amount of benefit if captured. It should be the focal point of most of your marketing efforts. The target market needs to be clearly identified with a justification as to why they are your specified target market.

    ​At SSW our target market comprises of IT Managers and Developers who look for Microsoft backed solutions. They're the ones we focus our marketing energies on because we've found that they're the key decision makers when it comes to adopting new technologies and often act as the gate keepers to information being relayed to upper management. If we gain their approval, it's often much easier to secure a deal. Part of our penetration strategy towards this target market is to hold Tech Breakfasts and User Group meetings.

    ​To use an example when Disney releases a new blockbuster cartoon like the Lion King or Aladdin who do you think the target market is? Many would say it's the young children that the movies are made for. But the truth is that Disney's target market often includes the decision makers - the parents who take the children to the movies and buy the merchandise. Disney knows that it's one thing to make a great movie that kids are excited about but the efforts often fall short if parents don't approve of it.​

  13. Do you know how to create a webinar using GoToWebinar?

    One of the best ways to attract and convert leads into clients is using webinars. This rule will show you how to setup a webinar using GoToWebinar.

     

     

  14. Do you know how to keep track of your PPC campaign spend?

    It is hard to keep track of your PPC spending in your head when you are constantly adjusting spends for multiple campaigns. At SSW we have multiple campaigns running on a weekly basis. Sometimes we adjust the spend on a campaign for a week to test out a new lead generation tactic to see if we can get a lower cost per conversion.

     

    SSW has a daily budget to spend on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Google AdWords​ and Bing. At times we swap the budget from one platform to another to increase our conversions if the campaign is doing exceptionally well.

    The best way to keep track of the monthly spend and make sure we don't go over our budget for the month is to hold a weekly meeting every Monday. The following spreadsheet  Campaign PPC Spend.xlsx should be prepared before the meeting for stakeholders to review.

    During the meeting we cover the following:

    1. The spend for the last week
    2. The spend for the upcoming week

    At the end of the meeting the spreadsheet is emailed to the stakeholders. The email should contain:

    1. The amount be spent on each campaign on each platform
    2. A link to the spreadsheet on your internal intranet (hopefully SharePoint :-))

     

  15. Do you know how to optimize Google AdWords campaigns?

    Google AdWords can be a useful and successful marketing platform when actively monitored and optimized. This should be done daily, where possible, to ensure that ads are not running and spending money ineffectively, here are three important steps to achieve this:

    Setting Maximum Cost per Click

    AdWords can be a costly method of advertising when used incorrectly. To prevent unknown and exorbitant costs you are able to set the Maximum Cost per Click (Max. CPC) for each of your ads. This means that you won't pay more than the amount you have set for your ad, although this helps prevent surprise bill shock it does,​ however, mean that you may be missing out on clicks and as a result leads due to a low Max CPC. 

    If your Max CPC is too low compared to competitor ads you may be missing out on reaching the first page of the google search. Ads should be adjusted to ensure that they are able to be seen by the market, this can be accomplished by setting your Max CPC at a level that will ensure it is on the first page.

    2016-02-25_8-16-05.jpg
    Figure: Maximum Cost per Click can be set at the campaign, ad group or ad level

    Negative Keywords

    When searching using Google there are often phrases and keywords that appear that are not related to what you are after. These keywords can cause your costs to rise if people are clicking on them and your ad does not provide the information they intended. Google AdWords has a solution to prevent this in the form of 'Negative Keywords'. 

    Negative Keywords are able to be added to your campaign or ad group and tell Google AdWords that you don't want your ad to be shown in any search containing these terms. This will help to minimize both cost and bounce rate for your ads.

    2016-02-25_8-18-14.jpg
    Figure: Negative Keywords ensure your ad is not shown in unrelated searches

    Split Testing Ads

    As with any advertisement, it is important to test multiple ads to determine which performs best. Once ads have been running for a period of time they should be assessed and those which are under performing should be switched off, whilst the highest performers should be copied and then tweaked and continued to run. This can be continued over the lifetime of an ad, as each ad has a certain period of effectiveness.

    Although ideally this should be done and adjusted daily, this is not always possible. In this case, when there are multiple campaigns the main priority is to be focused, try not to spread yourself thin working on optimizing and adjusting multiple campaigns, rather select one or two campaigns and focus your attention on these. This will provide the best use of your time, and after this campaign has been adjusted you can focus your attention on the remaining.

  16. Do you know the planning that should be done for a webinar?

    ​Webinars involve a lot of preparation from all parties. In order for a webinar to be run as successfully as possible, there are some deadlines which should be met. 

    After confirming with a presenter, an 'As per our conversation' email should be sent requesting the title and description of the webinar. These details should be provided no later than three weeks prior to the event so that landing pages can be created. This also allows for two weeks of promotion to be carried out, ensuring the best attendance rate is achieved. ​

    If you are part of an automated webinar using software like Easy Webinar the video files should be sent to the marketing team two weeks prior to the event. This allows for any editing that needs to be done and prevents stress before the webinar for the team.​

  17. Do you measure the effectiveness of your marketing efforts?

    Management seem to have a huge focus on facts and figures and much like most other things in the business arena, in marketing you need to be able to put numbers to your results. You'll need to justify why you chose one option over another with a solid figure. Because there are a myriad of ways in which you can market your products/services there's a managerial expectation that you'll be able to reflect on its performance.

    ​For example if you're coordinating some outbound calling, you need to make sure that all of the calls that are made are logged and you can query for closing rates. See our outbound rules​ for more detail. In addition when you're measuring the effectiveness of your campaigns you need to know what marketing figures are considered a success for your different types of marketing campaigns. For example direct mail campaigns with a conversion rate of 2%-5% is considered a success due to the volume of people we contact.​

  18. Do you plan in advance for your marketing campaigns?

    In marketing good timing is the key to a successful campaign. As a smart marketer you need to remember that some campaigns can take weeks or even months to start heating up whilst others can take just a few days.

    For example SSW have found that when we plan to market our training events, the best time for an aggressive direct mail and telemarketing campaign is 4 weeks prior to the event. Any sooner than that and the prospects will often ask you to call again when it comes closer to the date. If you start your marketing for your events too late, like 5 days prior to the event, your chances of making a sale decrease significantly. Remember that people often need to gain management approval for the funding and time off work. Only rarely will you find someone willing to book in just a few days prior to the event.​

  19. Do you regularly audit your Google Adwords account?

    After learning about the Google Adwords lawsuit pursued by Lanes Gifts & Collectibles, which resulted in a $90M settlement by Google, we put in place redirect files to keep track of the amount of clicks obtained from our Adwords. Up until April 2006, we were led to believe that the amount of clicks Google were specifying was ​ the number of clicks we were receiving. How wrong we were! After implementing the redirect files, we quickly learnt that the number of clicks of one of our campaigns was incorrect and we were being overcharged.

    ​By implementing redirect files, we can keep track of exactly how many clicks are being generated by our Adwords. Hence, we can see which campaigns are more effective and just as importantly, we can keep track of exactly how much we should be charged for this.​​​

  20. Do you rotate your marketing communications?

    The way that marketing communications strategy is planned and measured is through the concepts of frequency and reach. Frequency being how often the message is broadcast, and reach being how many people receive it. We cover the frequency part of the equation by rotating our product advertising on a monthly basis and increasing our reach by applying this rotation to several different points of contact.​

    At the end of the month we would check the click throughs that these links have generated which will allow us to compare one marketing point of contact against another. Then in the following month we would simply rotate the ad. Here's a scenario that depicts how we envisage our strategy to work.

    Joe is surfing on the Internet for an email management utility:

    1. He finds our website on the Internet (probably through Google) then sees on our homepage an ad about SSW Code Auditor​
    2. If he downloads our software and receives it via email he's sees another SSW Code Auditor ad
    3. If he has any contact with our employees (mainly via email) he'll once again see an ad in the email footers
    4. Later on in the month Joe will receive the newsletter with SSW Code Auditor advertised.

    This means that Joe has had a chance to see the same ad at least four times by the end of the month. All this at a total cost of zero dollars!

    Note: If you've got scrolling links like we do on our home page it's a good idea to keep the information up to date. We say that these should be changed on a monthly basis.​

  21. Do you sell the sizzle, not the steak?

    'Selling the sizzle, not the steak" - the benefits, not the features - is a basic selling principle that's been around for thousands of years. We all know that people buy a 1/4-inch drill so that they can make a 1/4-inch hole. But I'm always amazed at how many businesses, large and small, keep on plugging the features of their product or service, and omit the benefits to the user.

    • Engineers list the technical specs
    • Lawyers list all of the services they offer
    • Software houses plug the bells and whistles of version 6.3
    • Airlines describe their full destination lists
    • ...and so on. Look at any six adverts in a business magazine, and I'll bet that at least three fall into this trap

    A good example of a benefit is shown in this Colgate toothpaste slogan; "Your teeth will be whiter so you can smile with confidence."

    Of course, features do need to be described. That's one way of convincing prospects that you can deliver the benefits that prospective customers want. However, if you concentrate only on the features, the prospect may well yawn and say "So what?" Is your business guilty as charged? Here are​ 3 ways to check:

    • Look closely at your sales literature - including sales letters that you write. How many times are features described without stating the benefits of that feature?
    • Check your sales peoples' reports (verbal as well as written). How many times do they state what features the prospect wants rather than the real needs of the prospect, the benefits that s/he is looking for?
    • When you are in a sales situation, just listen to yourself. Are you so carried away with the excellent features of your product or service that you are not taking the trouble to find out what the prospect really wants?
  22. Do you take advantage of every point of contact?

    Every point of contact that you have with your customers is a potential to sell them something, whether that be other products or services or even to sell the company as a whole by saying how great we are.

    ​Here are some examples of how we take advantage of every point of contact with our target market:

    • At SSW we send a tech breakfast flyer with the invoices that we send via snail mail
    • We give out SSW bags and flyers at our User Group
    • Have advertisements at the bottom of our email footers
    • All SSW staff wear SSW shirts when meeting with prospects/clients
    • When we present at other events our slides are branded with the SSW logo

    We think that it's the little things like this that may make the difference!​

  23. Do you tell the world about your event sponsorship?

    Sponsoring an event can be a good way to get your company’s name and expertise out there to the people who attend, but you can also get extra value by telling people about it who aren’t going, especially if it is an event valued by your industry.

    ​You should let the world know through the following channels:

    • Your website news page​​
    • Company Facebook groups or pages
    • Company LinkedIn pages
  24. Do you use American spelling for your Website?

    Being an Aussie this rule is controversial but we feel that it is worth it for the following reasons. We regularly use web traffic analysis to monitor who is using our web site and most of our users are American. We want our website to cater to the majority of our users. For this reason we use American spelling on our site. Phonetically it makes more sense.

  25. Do you use Automated Webinars for running Webinars in multiple Time Zones?

    ​Using automated webinars allows users in different time zones​ to view the webinar at a time that is convenient for them.

    At SSW we run webinars in multiple time zones around the world. Our webinars are attended by people from Europe, US, Australia and Asia. Because we want people to see the webinar at time that is suitable for them, we have been running our webinars in three different time zones.

    This means that we have create three different pages on Eventbrite for signups. We also have to have a technical person wake up early in the morning on the day to run the first webinar for the US audience. They then run the webinar at 11:00am for the Australian and Asia attendees, and finally they stay back at work until 10pm that night to run the webinar for the European audience.

    Because of the different time zones and because we want to keep the quality of the video high so we can put the webinar recording on our website SSW TV we prerecord the webinars and then play them at the relevant times. You can see an example of a recorded webinar at http://tv.ssw.com/5682/how-to-make-web-applications-with-angularjs-and-asp-net-mvc-dev-superpowers-episode-7 ​

    Creating the multiple Eventbrite pages for multiple time zones are prone to error and is very labour intensive to keep updated along with the landing pages. Also having a staff member come in early and work late is not sustainable.​ 

    To overcome these issues started to automate our webinars. This means that the webinars will run without anyone from our company having to do anything. We record the webinar on a video, upload it to the software and then at the appropriate times the webinars automatically are played.

    ​What is even better is that each person can see the times we nominate in their time zone so the times are always during business hours. For example someone from the US will see the times at 11:00am in their time zone. Someone in Europe will see the time at 11:00am in their time zone and someone from Australia will see it at 11:00am in their time zone.

    When they get on the webinar at their time, the video starts playing for them.

    The has cut down time for us in creating multiple landing pages and the time to actually run the webinar.

  26. Do you use both conventional and American spelling for your Google Adwords?

    Did you know that all pilots around the world must speak English? Back then the decision of what language to use, was made as English, since the US invented the first plane. Like the sky, in the web world, it is better to use one version of English. Since the US invented the web, let's go with that.

    If you are an Australian or British this rule is controversial, but it is worth it for the following reasons:

    • Cater for the majority. Most web traffic is from American users and they expect American (most probably will assume it is an error)
    • On the practical side, more web searches are going to be returned for US spelling of words.​

    ​​Don't forget after making edits to check your pages for spelling errors.

    At SSW we have a Google Adwords account that allows us to reach a targeted audience based on the keywords they use to search the Internet. While testing the effectiveness of the keywords in our Adwords account, we realised that if we use Australian spelling a lot of our US customers won't find us, and vice versa.

    Thus if you are using Adwords or a similar system, it's a good idea to include all variations on the spelling of a word to ensure you don't miss out on any potential customers. The beauty of the system is that if nobody searches on a word it doesn't cost you a cent, so it makes sense to include as many as possible!

  27. Do you use door prizes and giveaways at your events?

    A golden rule of marketing is:

    "People love gifts and surprises"

    Taking this into consideration: a great and effective way to promote your company is to give people free stuff. A very simple yet effective method. Each month at the Sydney .NET User Group, attendees receive SSW show bags filled with free software and company brochures. 

    User group attendees are also encouraged to hand in their eval forms with a lucky dip prize. People love anything that is free so always bring more than enough. Just remember that when you're giving things away make sure you have something genuine to offer them aside from your sales/company brochures.​

  28. Do you use Photoshop artboards to create campaign images?

    When creating an image (banner, logo, etc) for a campaign, it's important to have consistent sizing and branding. This also allows for images to be created quicker and easier, and in the context of the larger campaign.

    Use the Photoshop Artboard to provide a visual guideline and allow for quick and consistent campaign creation.This way, you can see your new banner in the context of the other banners in the campaign, and check that your sizing and art style is consistent. ​​

    Photoshop artboard.jpg
    Figure: Photoshop artboard

  29. Do you utilize advertising mediums?

    Whether your business is big or small Advertising is an essential way of exposing customers to your brands. With the increasing competitiveness of business these days it is essential that your advertising has the greatest impact.

    As such, we feel it necessary to identify the different forms of advertising mediums.

    • Television
    • Radio
    • Newspaper
    • Outdoor (from billboards to pole posters)
    • Magazines
    • Internet (from banner ads to websites)
    • Direct Mail

    Now details of SSW previous experience with those advertising mediums we feel are more applicably to the I.T. industry:

    Magazines

    • BPR: very strong response
    • Smart Access: good
    • Advisor: good
    • SQL Server Magazine
    • Communique: absolutely hopeless - we have had 0 response from full page ads.

    Internet

    Banner ads - We have had the best responses with the following websites:

    • Google
    • SQL Server
  30. Do your evaluation forms identify prospects?

    An evaluation form can be a great method of collecting information both about your own performance and the needs and wants of your market. You should always have questions in your evaluation forms that will allow you to add elements to your database which can be queried against in the future.​

    In the SSW Speakers and Presentation Evaluation Form we give people the chance to provide some feedback as well as ask some questions which will allow us to identify new prospects and their interests. This information is invaluable and your company database should be Configure to hold and query this information. But remember the golden rule of collecting information is to give people the chance to "opt out" of being contacted in the future. Failing to do this is in breach of  privacy laws. ​