Rules to Better Code

​​​ What makes code "cleaner"? What makes the difference between readable code and very readable code?

It can be very painful when needing to modify a piece of code in an application that you never spec'd out or wrote. But it doesn't have to be this way. By following some of these better programming tips your code can be easily read and easily modified by any developer at any time.

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  1. Do you avoid clear text email addresses in web pages?

    Clear text email addresses in web pages are very dangerous because it gives spam sender a chance to pick up your email address, which produces a lot of spam/traffic to your mail server, this will cost you money and time to fix.

    Never put clear text email address on web pages.

     
    Contact Us

    Bad - Using a plain email address that it will be crawled and made use of easily​

    Contact Us

    Good - Using an encoded email address​​


    Note: If you use Wordpress, use the Email Encoder Bundle plugin to help you encode email addresses easily.

    We have a program called SSW CodeAuditor to check for this rule.​
    We have a program called SSW Link​Auditor to check for this rule.​​​

  2. Do you refactor your code and keep methods short?

    Refactoring is all about making code easier to understand and cheaper to modify without changing its behavior​.

    As a rule of thumb, no methods should be greater than 50 lines of code. Long-winded methods are the bane of any developer and should be avoided at all costs. Instead, a method of 50 lines or more should be broken down into smaller functions.

  3. Do you maintain separation of concerns?

    One of the major issues people had back in the day with ASP (before ASP.NET) was the prevalence of "Spaghetti Code". This mixed Reponse.Write() with actual code​.

    ​Ideally, you should keep design and code separate - otherwise, it will be difficult to maintain your application. Try to move all data access and business logic code into separate modules.

    Bob Martin explains this best:

     

     

  4. Do you follow naming conventions?

    It's the most obvious - but naming conventions are so crucial to simpler code, it's crazy that people are so loose with them...

    For Javascript / Typescript ​​

    Google publishes a JavaScript style guide. 

    Here are some key points:

    • Use const or let – Not var 
    • Use semicolons 
    • Use arrow functions
    • Use template strings 
    • Use uppercase constants 
    • Use single quotes

    See 13 Noteworthy Points from Google’s JavaScript Style Guide​

    For C# Java​​

    See chapter 2: Meaningful Names Clean Code: A Handbook of Agile Software Craftsmanship​​

    For SQL (not really relevant these days)​​

  5. Do you use the testing stage, in the file name?

    When moving through the different stages of testing i.e. from internal testing, through to UAT, you should suffix the application name with the appropriate stage:

    Stage Testing Description Naming Convention
    AlphaDeveloper testing with project teamNorthwind_v2-3_alpha.exe
    BetaInternal “Test Please" testing with non-project working colleaguesNorthwind_v2-3_beta.exe
    Production e.g.When moving onto production, this naming convention is droppedNorthwind_v2-3.exe
    ​​
  6. Do you remove spaces from your folders and filename?

    It is not a good idea to have spaces in a folder or file name as they don't translate to URLs very well and can even cause technical problems.

    Instead of using spaces, you should have the first letter of each word in UPPERCASE and the rest of the word in lowercase. Alternatively, you can choose to use underscores. This alternative method to spacing makes file names more readable when published on the web. ​

    Note that this rule should apply to any file or folder that is on the web. This includes TFS Team Project names and SharePoint Pages.

    extremeemailsversion1.2.doc
    Extreme Emails version 1.2.doc

    Figure - Bad Examples: filenames have spaces or dots

    Extreme_Emails_v1_2.doc
    ExtremeEmails_v1_2.doc

    Figure – Good Examples: file names do not have spaces

    UTS Short Course
    Ignite Talk

    Figure – Bad Examples: f​ile names have been published with spaces so the URLs look ugly and are hard to read

    UTS Short Course
    Ignite Talk

    Figure – Good Examples: file names have no spaces so are much easier to read​​
  7. Do you start versioning at 0.1 and change to 1.0 once approved by a client or tester?

    ​​Software and document version numbers should be consistent and meaningful to both the developer and the user.​​​​​

    ​Generally, version numbering should begin at 0.1. Once the project has been approved for release by the client or tester, the version number will be incremented to 1.0. The numbering after the decimal point needs to be decided on and uniform. For example, 1.1 might have many bug fixes and a minor new feature, while 1.11 might only include one minor bug fix.​

  8. Do you use the new C# 7 language features to slash the amount of boilerplate code you write?

    ​Up until this point, .NET developers had to write a lot of boilerplate code in order to properly format strings or check for null. This boilerplate code required a lot of work to ensure code readability and maintainability.

    The new C# 6 that comes with Visual Studio 2015 is a game changer that empowers devs to do more with less.

    These 3 features will slash the amount of boilerplate code you have to write and improve code quality:​​


    1. nameof expressions - allows us to get the name of the type of object

      Now when we throw an exception, we can use the name of expressions feature to create robust code, which is more resistant to common mistakes when refactoring. This is achieved by reducing the amount of hard coding.

      As you can see, when in the past you would have to write the following code:

      (if customer.Address.ZipCode == null) throw new ArgumentNullException("ZipCode");

      Figure: Bad example - Amount of boiler plate code for a simple task 

      Now you only have write:

      (if customer.Address.ZipCode == null) throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(customer.Address.ZipCode));

      Figure: Good example - The same functionality as the Bad Example in a single line of code
      The benefit of this change is when refactoring our code, we don't need to worry about searching for magic strings. Which common slip through the cracks and lead to confusing error messages.
    2. String Interpolation - greatly reduces the amount of boilerplate code required when working with strings
    3. Formatting strings on the fly was previously a task which required a stack of boilerplate code. In the Visual Studio 2015, we can use the smart String Interpolation feature. Not only does this feature reduce the amount of code we have to write, it also improves code readability.

      For example, before C# 6, we would write:

      var s = String.Format("Profit is ${0} this year", p.TotalEarnings - p.Totalcost);

      Figure: Bad example - Using the string format make the code difficult to read

      Now we are able to:

      var s = "Profit is ${p.TotalEarnings - p.Totalcost} this year";

      Figure: Good example - Very human readable code

      As can be seen above by making use of the new String Interpolation feature, the understandability of your code is greatly improved.

    4. ​Null-conditional operators - makes checking for null as easy as inserting a single question mark

      This great new feature has had a raft of positive reactions from developers. The new Null-conditional operators feature boils down all of the previously laborious clunky code into a single question mark.

      For example, previously we would of had to write a chunk of code to achieve a simple task

      if(customers.Length != null) { int length = customers.Length; } else { int length = 0; }

        Figure: Bad example - Fragile code

      Now we are able to replace that chunk of code with a single line

      int length = customers?.Length ?? 0;

      Figure: Good example - Robust code

      The promise In short, these new features will save you time, and help you write cleaner, more robust code - what's not to love?

  9. Tools – Do you make sure StyleCop is installed and turned on?

    Then avoid adding exclusions… and if you *have to* make sure any exclusions…then have each one agreed to by all the team members.​

  10. Tools - Do you make sure you have Visual Studio Code Analysis turned on?

    Then avoid adding exclusions… and if you *have to* make sure any exclusions…then have each one agreed to by all the team members.
  11. Do you declare variables when you need them?

    Should you declare variables at the top of the function, or declare them when you need to use them? If you come back to your code after a few weeks and you no longer need a variable, you are quite likely to forget to delete the declaration at the top, leaving orphaned variables. Here at SSW, we believe that variables should be declared as they are needed.​

    ​Private Sub Command0_Click()
    Dim dteTodayDate As Date
    Dim intRoutesPerDay As Integer
    Dim intRoutesToday As Integer
    Dim dblWorkLoadToday As Double
    dblWorkLoadToday = Date.Now()
    .
    ....many lines of code...
    .
    intRoutesPerDay = 2
    End Sub

    Figure: Bad example


    Private Sub Command0_Click()
    Dim dteTodayDate As Date
    dteTodayDate = Date.Now()
    .
    ....many lines of code...
    .
    Dim intRoutesPerDay As Integer
    intRoutesPerDay = 2
    .
    ....continuing code...
    .End Sub

    ​Figure: Good example​​
  12. Do you know how to avoid problems in if-statements?

    Try to avoid problems in if-statements without curly brackets and just one statement which is written one line below the if-statement. Use just one line for such if-statements. If you want to add more statements later on and you could forget to add the curly brackets which may cause problems later on.​

    ​if (ProductName == null) ProductName = string.Empty; if (ProductVersion == null)
    ProductVersion = string.Empty; if (StackTrace == null) StackTrace = string.Empty;

    ​​​Figure: Ba​d Example

    if (ProductName == null)
    {
    ProductName = string.Empty;
    }
    if (ProductVersion == null)
    {
    ProductVersion = string.Empty;
    }
    if (StackTrace == null)
    {
    StackTrace = string.Empty;
    }

    ​Figure: Good Example


  13. Do you avoid Double-Negative Conditionals in if-statements?

    Try to avoid Double-Negative Conditionals in if-statements. Double negative conditionals are difficult to read because developers have to evaluate what is positive state of two negatives. So always try to make a single positive when you write if-statement.

    ​if (!IsValid)
    {
    // handle no error
    }
    else
    {
    // handle error
    }​

    Figure: Bad e​xample​

    if (IsValid)
    {
    // handle error
    }
    else
    {
    // handle no error
    }

    Figure: Good example​

    if (!IsValid)
    {
    // handle error
    }

    ​Figure: Another good example
  14. C# Code- Do you know String should be @-quoted instead of using escape character for "\\"?

    The @ symbol specifies that escape characters and line breaks should be ignored when the string is created.

    As per:  Strings 

    ​string p2 = "\\My Documents\\My Files\\";

    Figure: Bad example - Using "\\"

    string p2 = @"\My Documents\My Files\";

    Figure: Good example - Using @​​
  15. Do you add the Application Name in the SQL Server connection string?

    You should always add the application name to the connection string so that SQL Server will know which application is connecting, and which database is used by that application. This will also allow SQL Profiler to trace individual application which helps you monitor performance or resolve conflicts.

    Bad example - The connection string without Application Name

    // Good Code - Application Name is added in the connection string.​

    ​​Good example - The connection string with Application Name​
  16. Do you always create suggestions when something is hard to do?

    One of our goals is to make the job of the developer as easy as possible. If you have to write a lot of code for something that you think you should not have to do, you should make a suggestion and add it to the relevant page.

    If you have to add a suggestion, make sure that you put the link to that suggestion into the comments of your code.​​

    ​Imports System.Windows.Threading
    Imports System.Threading
    '''


    ''' base class for command implementations
    ''' This is a work around as standard MVVM commands
    ''' are not provided by default
    '''

    '''
    Public MustInherit Class Command
    Implements ICommand
    Private m_dispatcher As Dispatcher
    Protected Sub New()
    If Not Application.Current Is Nothing Then
    m_dispatcher = Application.Current.Dispatcher
    Else
    m_dispatcher = Dispatcher.CurrentDispatcher
    End If
    Debug.Assert(Not m_dispatcher Is Nothing)
    End Sub
    Public MustOverride Function CanExecute(ByVal parameter As Object) As Boolean Implements System.Windows.Input.ICommand.CanExecute
    Public MustOverride Sub Execute(ByVal parameter As Object) Implements System.Windows.Input.ICommand.Execute
    Public Event CanExecuteChanged(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Implements System.Windows.Input.ICommand.CanExecuteChanged

    Public Sub OnCanExecuteChanged()
    If Not m_dispatcher.CheckAccess Then
    m_dispatcher.Invoke(New ThreadStart(AddressOf OnCanExecuteChanged), DispatcherPriority.Normal)
    Else
    CommandManager.InvalidateRequerySuggested()
    RaiseEvent CanExecuteChanged(Me, New EventArgs)
    End If
    End Sub
    End Class

    Figure: Bad example - The link to the suggestion should be in the comments​

    ​Imports System.Windows.Threading
    Imports System.Threading
    '''


    ''' base class for command implementations
    ''' This is a work around as standard MVVM commands
    ''' are not provided by default
    ''' http://www.ssw.com.au/ssw/Standards/BetterSoftwareSuggestions/WPF.aspx#EmbraseMVVM
    '''

    '''
    Public MustInherit Class Command
    Implements ICommand
    Private m_dispatcher As Dispatcher
    Protected Sub New()
    If Not Application.Current Is Nothing Then
    m_dispatcher = Application.Current.Dispatcher
    Else
    m_dispatcher = Dispatcher.CurrentDispatcher
    End If
    Debug.Assert(Not m_dispatcher Is Nothing)
    End Sub
    Public MustOverride Function CanExecute(ByVal parameter As Object) As Boolean Implements System.Windows.Input.ICommand.CanExecute
    Public MustOverride Sub Execute(ByVal parameter As Object) Implements System.Windows.Input.ICommand.Execute
    Public Event CanExecuteChanged(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Implements System.Windows.Input.ICommand.CanExecuteChanged

    Public Sub OnCanExecuteChanged()
    If Not m_dispatcher.CheckAccess Then
    m_dispatcher.Invoke(New ThreadStart(AddressOf OnCanExecuteChanged), DispatcherPriority.Normal)
    Else
    CommandManager.InvalidateRequerySuggested()
    RaiseEvent CanExecuteChanged(Me, New EventArgs)
    End If
    End Sub
    End Class

    ​Figure: Good example - Wh​​en you link to a suggestion everyone can find it and vote it up


  17. Do you avoid casts and use the "as operator" instead?

    Use casts only if:
    a. You know 100% that you get that type back
    b. You want to perform a user-defined conversion

    ​ private void AMControlMouseLeftButtonUp(object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e)
    {
    var auc = (AMUserControl)sender;
    var aucSessionId = auc.myUserControl.Tag;
    // snip snip snip
    }

    Bad example​​​

    private void AMControlMouseLeftButtonUp(object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e)
    {
    var auc = sender as AMUserControl;
    if (auc != null)
    {
    var aucSessionId = auc.myUserControl.Tag;
    // snip snip snip
    }
    }

    ​Good example​
    More info here: ​http://blog.gfader.com/2010/08/avoid-type-casts-use-operator-and-check.html
  18. Do you avoid Empty code blocks?

    ​Empty Visual C# .NET method consumes program resources unnecessarily. Put a ​​comment in code block if its stub for future application.

    Exception: If a Class implements an Inherited Interface method, you should add a comment within the Code block


    ​public class Example
    {
    public double salary()
    {
    }
    }

    ​​Figure: Bad Example - Method is empty​​​​​

    ​public class Sample
    {
    public double salary()
    {
    return 2500.00;
    }
    }

    ​Figure: G​ood Example - Method implements some code

    public interface IDemo
    {
    void DoSomethingUseful();
    void SomethingThatCanBeIgnored();
    }
    public class Demo : IDemo
    {
    public void DoSomethingUseful()
    {
    // no audit issues
    Console.WriteLine("Useful");
    }
    // audit issues
    public void SomethingThatCanBeIgnored()
    {
    }
    }

    ​Figure: Bad Example - No Comment within empty code block

    ​​​public interface IDemo
    {
    void DoSomethingUseful();
    void SomethingThatCanBeIgnored();
    }
    public class Demo : IDemo
    {
    public void DoSomethingUseful()
    {
    // no audit issues
    Console.WriteLine("Useful");
    }
    // No audit issues
    public void SomethingThatCanBeIgnored()
    {
    // stub for IDemo interface
    }
    }

    ​​​Figure: Good Example - Added comment within Empty Code block method of interface class

  19. Do you avoid logic errors by using Else If?

    We see a lot of programmers doing this, they have two conditions - true and false - and they do not consider other possibilities - e.g. an empty string. Take a look at this example. We have an If statement that checks what backend database is being used. This is being stored as a property - Backend in config file. At the moment only Access and SQL Server are options.

    Private Sub Command0_Click()
    If My.MySettings.Default.Backend = "Access" Then
    'Call this code ie. SQL commands
    Else
    'Must be SQL Server
    'Call this other code ie. Stored Proc
    End If
    .....processing code
    End Sub

    Figure: Bad example with If statement

    Consider later on this code is updated... the programmer wishes to add an Oracle backend database option. So they modify the Backend property to include Oracle...

    By using the above code, the wrong code will run because the above code assumes two possible situations. To avoid this problem, change the code to be defensive .g. Use an Else If statement (like below).

    The user will then get a Logic Error and can report it to the programmer.​

    Private Sub Command0_Click()
    If My.MySettings.Default.Backend = "Access" Then
    'Call this code ie. SQL
    ElseIf My.MySettings.Default.Backend = "SQL Server" Then
    'Call this other code ie. Stored Proc
    Else
    Throw New Exception( "Logic Error -- BackEnd is: "
    & My.MySettings.Default.Backend)
    End If
    End Sub

    Figure: Good example with If statement


    When writing code to trap Logic Errors, use "Select Case" or "switch" statements to enhance readability. e.g. in VB.NET

    Private Sub Command0_Click()
    Select Case mDataset.Tables(0).Rows(0)("Key")
    Case "1"
    ' Initialize the column list
    strTempColumn = ""
    Case "2"
    ' Ignore
    End Select
    .....processing code
    End Sub

    Figure: Bad example with Case statement in VB.NET

    Private Sub Command0_Click()
    Select Case mDataset.Tables(0).Rows(0)("Key")
    Case "1"
    ' Initialize the column list
    strTempColumn = ""
    Case "2"
    ' IgnoreCase Else
    Throw New Exception("Logic Error")
    End Select
    .....processing code
    End Sub

    Figure: Good example - Use 'Select Case' or 'Switch' statements to enhance readability when coding to find logic errors
  20. Do you avoid putting business logic into the presentation layer?

    Be sure you are aware of what is business logic and what isn't. Typically, looping code will be placed in the business layer. This ensures that no redundant code is written and other projects can reference this logic as well.

    private void btnOK_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
    rtbParaText.Clear();
    var query =
    from p in dc.GetTable()
    select p.ParaID;
    foreach (var result in query)
    {
    var query2 =
    from t in dc.GetTable()
    where t.ParaID == result
    select t.ParaText;
    rtbParaText.AppendText(query2.First() + "\r\n");
    }
    }

    Bad Example: A UI method mixed with business logics


    private void btnOK_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
    string paraText = Business.GetParaText();
    rtbParaText.Clear();
    rtbParaText.Add(paraText);
    }

    Good Example : Putting business logics into the business project, just call the relevant method when needed​​


  21. Do you avoid "UI" in event names?

    No "UI" in event names, the event raiser should be unaware of the UI in MVVM and user controls
    The handler of the event should then do something on the UI.

    private void RaiseUIUpdateBidButtonsRed()
    {
    if (UIUpdateBidButtonsRed != null)
    {
    UIUpdateBidButtonsRed();
    }
    }

    Bad Code: Avoid "UI" in event names, an event is UI un-aware

    ​​

    private void RaiseSelectedLotUpdated()
    {
    if (SelectedLotUpdated != null)
    {
    SelectedLotUpdated();
    }
    }

    Good Code: We received an update on the currently selected item, change the UI correspondingly (or even better: use MVVM and data binding)


  22. Do you avoid using if-else instead of switch block?

    The .NET framework and the C# language provide two methods for conditional handling where multiple distinct values can be selected from. The switch statement is less flexible than the if-else-if tree but is generally considered to be more efficient. .NET compiler generates a jump list for switch block for that reason it is faster for long list of condition. And also complier has the ability to optimize the switch block. Condition in the switch block is faster as compiler evaluated the condition once but for if-else block, compiler need to evaluate the condition for each 'else if' block

    Note: Performance is very much negligible when number of condition is less than 5. So if the code design is clearer & easily maintainable by using if-else block, then Developer should use if-else block for fewer conditions.


    int DepartmentId = GetDepartmentId()
    if(DepartmentId == 1)
    {
    // do something
    }
    else if(DepartmentId == 2)
    {
    // do something #2
    }
    else if(DepartmentId == 3)
    {
    // do something #3
    }
    else if(DepartmentId == 4)
    {
    // do something #4
    }
    else if(DepartmentId == 5)
    {
    // do something #5
    }
    else
    {
    // do something #6
    }

    Figure: Bad example of coding practice


    int DepartmentId = GetDepartmentId()
    switch(DepartmentId)
    {
    case 1:
    // do something
    break;
    case 2:
    // do something # 2
    break;
    case 3:
    // do something # 3
    break;
    case 4:
    // do something # 4
    break;
    case 1:
    // do something # 5
    break;
    case 1:
    // do something # 6
    break;
    default:
    //Do something here
    break;
    }

    Figure: Good example of coding practice which will result better performance

    Further Reading: Speed Test: Switch vs If-Else-If

  23. Do you avoid validating XML documents unnecessarily?

    Validating an XML document against a schema is expensive, and should not be done where it is not absolutely necessary. Combined with weight the XML document object, validation can cause a significant performance hit:

    • Read with XmlValidatingReader: 172203 nodes - 812 ms
    • Read with XmlTextReader: 172203 nodes - 320 ms
    • Parse using XmlDocument no validation - length 1619608 - 1052 ms
    • Parse using XmlDocument with XmlValidatingReader: length 1619608 - 1862 ms

    You can disable validation when using the XmlDocument object by passing an XmlTextReader instead of the XmlValidatingTextReader:​

    ​XmlDocument report = new XmlDocument();
    XmlTextReader tr = new XmlTextReader(Configuration.LastReportPath);
    report.Load(tr);


    To perform validation:

    XmlDocument report = new XmlDocument();
    XmlTextReader tr = new XmlTextReader(Configuration.LastReportPath);
    XmlValidatingReader reader = new XmlValidatingReader(tr);
    report.Load(reader);


    The XSD should be distributed in the same directory as the XML file and a relative path should be used:


    ...
    ​​

  24. Do you change the connection timeout to 5 seconds?

    ​​By default, the connection timeout is 15 seconds. When it comes to testing if a connection is valid or not, 15 seconds is a long time for the user to wait. You should change the connection timeout inside your connection strings to 5 seconds.​

    "Integrated Security=SSPI;Initial Catalog=SallyKnoxMedical;Data
    Source=TUNA"

    Figure: Bad Connection String

    "Integrated Security=SSPI;Initial Catalog=SallyKnoxMedical;Data Source=TUNA;
    Connect Timeout=5"​

    Figure: Good Connection String with a 5-second connection timeout
  25. Do you declare member accessibility for all classes?

    Not explicitly specifying the access type for members of a structure or class can be deceiving for other developers that are using this structure or class. The default structure and class members access in Visual C# .NET is always private. The default class member access in Visual Basic .NET is private. However, the default structure member access in Visual Basic .NET is public.

    Match MatchExpression(string input, string pattern) 

    Figure: Bad - Method without member accessibility declared

    private Match MatchExpression(string input, string pattern) 

    Figure: Good - Method with member accessibility declared

    We have a program called SSW Code Auditor to check for this rule.

  26. Do you do your validation with Exit Sub?

    The Exit Sub statement can be very useful when used for validation filtering.
    Instead of a deep nested If, use Exit Sub or Return to provide a short execution path for conditions which are invalid.

    Private Sub AssignRightToLeft()
    'Validate Right
    If lstParaRight.SelectedIndex >= 0 Then
    'Validate Left
    If lstParaLeft.SelectedIndex >= 0 Then
    Dim paraID As String = lstParaRight.SelectedValue.ToString
    Dim mParagraph As BusinessLayer.Paragraph = New Paragraph
    mParagraph.MoveRight(paraID)
    RefreshData()
    End If
    End If
    End Sub 

    Figure: Bad example - using nested if for validation


    Private Sub AssignRightToLeft()
    'Validate Right and Left
    If lstParaRight.SelectedIndex = -1 Then Return
    If lstParaLeft.SelectedIndex = -1 Then Return
    Dim paraID As String = lstParaRight.SelectedValue.ToString
    Dim mParagraph As BusinessLayer.Paragraph = New Paragraph
    mParagraph.MoveRight(paraID)
    RefreshData()
    End If
    End If
    End Sub

    Figure: Good example - using Exit Sub to exit early if invalid ​
  27. Do you expose events as events?

    You should expose events as events.​

    ​ public Action
    < connectioninformation > ConnectionProblem;

    Bad code​

    public event Action
    < connectioninformation > ConnectionProblem;

    ​​​Good code​​
  28. Do you follow boy scout rule?

    The idea is simple , each time leave code a little cleaner then you found it.

    Common examples are:

    1. Make sure one rule is enabled in code analysis and
    2. One rule in StyleCop and
    3. Get Code Auditor to zero

    Related links:

  29. Do you follow naming conventions for your Boolean Property?

    Boolean Properties must be prefixed by a verb. Verbs like "Supports", "Allow", "Accept", "Use" should be valid. Also properties like "Visible", "Available" should be accepted (maybe not). Here is how we name Boolean columns in SQL databases.

    Public ReadOnly Property Enable As Boolean Get Return true End Get End Property
    Public ReadOnly Property Invoice As Boolean Get Return m_Invoice End Get End Property

    Bad Example

    Public ReadOnly Property Enabled As Boolean Get Return true End Get End Property
    Public ReadOnly Property IsInvoiceSent As Boolean Get return m_IsInvoiceSent End
    Get End Property

    Good Example - Naming Convention for Boolean Property

    We have a program called SSW Code Auditor to check for this rule.​

  30. Do you format "Environment.NewLine" at the end of a line?

    You should format "Environment.NewLine" at the end of a line.​​

    DialogResult diaResult = MessageBox.Show(this,
    "The database is not valid." + Environment.NewLine + "Do you want to upgrade it? ",
    "Tip",
    MessageBoxButtons.YesNo,
    MessageBoxIcon.Warning);

    Bad Example: "Environment.NewLine" isn't at the end of the line


    DialogResult diaResult = MessageBox.Show(this,
    "The database is not valid." + Environment.NewLine
    + "Do you want to upgrade it? ",
    "Tip",
    MessageBoxButtons.YesNo,
    MessageBoxIcon.Warning);

    Good Example:  "Environment.NewLine" is at the end of the line

    ​​

    return string.Join(Environment.NewLine, paragraphs);

    Good Example: ​"Environment.NewLine" is an exception for String.Join


  31. Do you have the time taken in the status bar?

    This feature is Particularly important if the user runs a semi-long task (e.g.30 seconds) once a day. Only at the end of the long process can he know the particular amount of time, if the time taken dialog is shown after the finish. If the status bar contains the time taken and the progress bar contains the progress percentage, he can evaluate how long it will take according to the time taken and percentage. Then he can switch to other work or go get a cup of coffee.

    Also for a developer, you can use it to know if a piece of code you have modified has increased the performance of the task or hindered it.

    ​​​TimeTaken_Bad.jpg
    Figure: Bad example - popup dialog at the end of a long process
    TimeTaken_Good.jpg
    Figure: Good example - show time taken in the status bar

  32. Do you import namespaces and shorten the references?

    You should import namespaces and shorten the references.

    ​System.Text.StringBuilder myStringBuilder = new System.Text.StringBuilder();

    Figure: Bad code - Long reference to object name​​

    using System.Text;
    ...
    ...
    StringBuilder myStringBuilder = new StringBuilder();

    Figure: Good code - Import the namespace and remove the repeated System.Text reference


    If you have ReSharper installed, you can let ReSharper take care of this for you:

    ReSharperReformatCode.gif
    Figure: Right click and select "Reformat Code..."
    ReSharperShortenReferences.gif
    Figure: Make sure "Shorten references" is checked and click "Reformat"​
    ​​
  33. Do you initialize variables outside of the try block?

    You should initialize variables outside of the try block.​

    Cursor cur;
    try
    {
    ...
    cur = Cursor.Current; //Bad Code - initializing the variable inside the try block
    Cursor.Current = Cursors.WaitCursor;
    ...
    }
    finally
    {
    Cursor.Current = cur;
    }

    Bad Example: Because of the initializing code inside the try block. If it failed on this line then you will get a NullReferenceException in Finally

    Cursor cur = Cursor.Current; //Good Code - initializing the variable outside the try block
    try
    {
    ...
    Cursor.Current = Cursors.WaitCursor;
    ...
    }
    finally
    {
    Cursor.Current = cur;
    }

    Good Example : Because the initializing code is outside the try​​​ block​​
  34. Do you know how to format your MessageBox code?

    You should always write each parameter of MessageBox in a separate line. So it will be more clear to read in the code. Format your message text in code as you want to see on the screen.

    ​Private Sub ShowMyMessage()
    MessageBox.Show("Are
    you sure you want to delete the team project """ + strProjectName
    + """?" + Environment.NewLine + Environment.NewLine + "Warning:
    Deleting a team project cannot be undone.", strProductName + "
    " + strVersion(), MessageBoxButtons.YesNo, MessageBoxIcon.Warning, MessageBoxDefaultButton.Button2)

    Figure: Bad example of MessageBox code format​

    Private Sub ShowMyMessage()
    MessageBox.Show( _
    "Are you sure you want to delete the team project """ + strProjectName + """?"
    _ + Environment.NewLine _ +
    Environment.NewLine _ +
    "Warning: Deleting a team project cannot be undone.", _
    strProductName + " " + strVersion(), _
    MessageBoxButtons.YesNo, _
    MessageBoxIcon.Warning, _
    MessageBoxDefaultButton.Button2)
    End Sub

    Figure: Good example of MessageBox code format​​
  35. Do you know that Enum types should not be suffixed with the word "Enum"?

    This is against the .NET Object Naming Conventions and inconsistent with the framework.

    Public Enum ProjectLanguageEnum CSharp VisualBasic End Enum

    Bad - Enum type is suffixed with the word "Enum"

    Public Enum ProjectLanguage CSharp VisualBasic End Enum

    Good - Enum type is not suffixed with the word "Enum"

    We have a program called SSW Code Auditor to check for this rule.


  36. Do you know that no carriage returns without line feed?

    Text files created on DOS/Windows machines have different line endings than files created on Unix/Linux. DOS uses carriage return and line feed ("\r\n") as a line ending, which Unix uses just line feed ("\n").
    ​​
    carriage-bad.jpg
    Figure: Bad example
    carriage-good.jpg
    Figure: Good example​
  37. Do you know the right way to define a connection string?

    The bad practice below because the application can now do anything it wants to the SQL server (e.g. DROP other databases).

    Server=DRAGON;Database=SSWData2005;Uid=sa;Pwd=password;

    Bad example - The connection string use 'sa' in Uid

    If using SQL Authentication
    Server=DRAGON;Database=SSWData2005;Uid=SSWWebsite;Pwd=password;Application Name=SSWWebsite
    If using Windows Authentication (Recommended)
    Server=DRAGON;Database=SSWData2005;Integrated Security=True;Application Name=SSWWebsite

     ​Good example - The connection string with Application Name
    • Application Name (e.g. SSWWebsite)

      • This makes profiling the database easier as you can filter by Application Name
    • Application Specific Login/Windows Integrated security with a Domain Account for the application (e.g. SSWWebsite)
      • These logins should only have access to the databases they use (e.g. SSWData2005)​
  38. Do you know what to do with a work around?

    If you have to use a workaround you should always comment your code and reference. You should also make a Suggestion to [Product] if you think it is something that the product should do.

    1. Comment in the code with URL to an existing or new Suggestion
    2. Create a Suggestion to .NET 3 that points to blog post

    "This is a workaround as per the suggestion 
    "[URL]

    Figure: Always add a URL to the suggestion that you are compensating for
  39. Do you know when to use named parameters?

    Named parameters have always been there for VB developers and in C# 4.0, C# developers finally get this feature.
    ​​​

    ​You should use named parameters under these scenarios:

    • When there are 4 or more parameters
    • When you make use of optional parameters
    • If it makes more sense to order the parameters a certain way​​
  40. Do you know where to store your application's files?

    Although many have differing opinions on this matter, Windows has standard storage locations for files for application, whether they're settings or user data. Some will disagree with those standards, but it's safe to say that following it regardless will give users a more consistent and straightforward computing experience.

    The following grid shows where application files should be placed: 

    store-files.jpg

    Further Information

    • The System.Environment class provides the most general way of retrieving those paths
    • The Application class lives in the System.Windows.Form namespace, which indicates it should only be used for WinForm applications. Other types of applications such as Console and WebForm applications use their corresponding utility classes

    Microsoft's write-up on this subject can be found at Microsoft API and reference catalog.​

  41. Do you name your events properly?

    Events should end in "ing" or "ed".

    ​ public event Action
    < connectioninformation > ConnectionProblem;

    ​​Bad code​​

    public event Action
    < connectioninformation > ConnectionProblemDetected;

    ​​Good code

    ​​​

  42. Do you pre-format your time strings before using TimeSpan.Parse()?

    TimeSpan.Parse() constructs a Timespan from a time indicated by a specified string. The acceptable parameters for this function are in the format "d.hh:mm" where "d" is the number of days (it is optional), "hh" is hours and is between 0 and 23 and "mm" is minutes and is between 0 and 59. If you try to pass, as a parameter, as a string such as "45:30" (meaning 45 hours and 30 minutes), TimeSpan.Parse() function will crash. (The exact exception received is: "System.OverflowException: TimeSpan overflowed because duration is too long".) Therefore it is recommended that you should always pre-parse the time string before passing it to the "TimeSpan.Parse()" function. This pre-parsing is done by the FormatTimeSpanString( ) function. This function will format the input string correctly. Therefore, a time string of value "45:30" will be converted to "1.21:30" (meaning 1 day, 21 hours and 30 minutes). This format is perfectly acceptable for TimeSpan.Parse() function and it will not crash.

    ​ts = TimeSpan.Parse(cboMyComboBox.Text)

    Figure: Bad code because a value greater than 24hours will crash eg. 45:30

    ts = TimeSpan.Parse(FormatTimeSpanString(cboMyComboBox.Text))​

    Figure: Good code because we are using a wrapper method to pre-parse the string containing the 
    TimeSpan value. (Look it up in CodeBase)

    We have a program called SSW Code Auditor to check for this rule.


  43. Do you put Exit Sub before End Sub?

    Do not put "Exit Sub" statements before the "End Sub". The function will end on "End Sub". "Exit Sub" is serving no real purpose here.

    Private Sub SomeSubroutine()
    'Your code here....
    Exit Sub ' Bad code - Writing Exit Sub before End Sub.
    End Sub

    Bad example​

    Private Sub SomeOtherSubroutine()
    'Your code here....
    End Sub

    Good example​

    We have a program called SSW Code Auditor to check for this rule.


  44. Do you put optional parameters at the end?

    Optional parameters should be placed at the end of the method signature as optional ones tend to be less important. You should put the important parameters first.

    public void SaveUserProfile(
    [Optional] string username,
    [Optional] string password,
    string firstName,
    string lastName,
    [Optional] DateTime? birthDate)

    Figure: Bad Example - Username and Password are optional and first - they are less important than firstName and lastName and should be put at the end


    public void SaveUserProfile(
    string firstName,
    string lastName,
    [Optional] string username,
    [Optional] string password,
    [Optional] DateTime? birthDate)

    Figure: Good Example - All the optional parameters are the end


    Note: When using optional parameters, please be sure to use named para meters

  45. Do you refer to form controls directly?

    When programming in form based environments one thing to remember is not to refer to form controls directly. The correct way is to pass the controls values that you need through parameters. There are a number of benefits for doing this:

    1. Debugging is simpler because all your parameters are in one place
    2. If for some reason you need to change the control's name then you only have to change it in one place.
    3. The fact that nothing in your function is dependant on outside controls means you could very easily reuse your code in other areas without too many problems re-connecting the parameters being passed in.

    It's a correct method of programming.


    ​​Private Sub Command0_Click()
    CreateSchedule
    End Sub
    Sub CreateSchedule()
    Dim dteDateStart As Date
    Dim dteDateEnd As Date
    dteDateStart = Format(Me.ctlDateStart,"dd/mm/yyyy") 'Bad Code - refering the form control directly
    dteDateEnd = Format(Me.ctlDateEnd, "dd/mm/yyyy")
    .....processing code
    End Sub

    Bad Example​​

    Private Sub Command0_Click()
    CreateSchedule(ctlDateStart, ctlDateEnd)
    End Sub
    Sub CreateSchedule(pdteDateStart As Date, pdteDateEnd As Date)
    Dim dteDateStart As Date
    Dim dteDateEnd As Date
    dteDateStart = Format(pdteDateStart, "dd/mm/yyyy") 'Good Code - refering the parameter directly
    dteDateEnd = Format(pdteDateEnd, "dd/mm/yyyy")
    &....processing code
    End Sub

    ​Good Example​​
  46. Do you reference websites when you implement something you found on Google?

    If you end up using someone else's code, or even idea, that you found online, make sure you add a reference to this in your source code. There is a good chance that you or your team will revisit the website. And of course, it never hurts to tip your hat off to other coders.
    ​​

    ​private void HideToSystemTray()
    {
    // Hide the windows form in the system tray
    if (FormWindowState.Minimized == WindowState)
    {
    Hide();
    }
    }

    ​​​Bad Example: The website where the solution was found IS NOT referenced in the comments


    private void HideToSystemTray()
    {
    // Hide the windows form in the system tray
    // I found this solution at http://www.developer.com/net/csharp/article.php/3336751
    if (FormWindowState.Minimized == WindowState)
    {
    Hide();
    }
    }

    Good Example: The website where the solution was found is referenced in the comments​​


  47. Do you store Application-Level Settings in your database rather than configuration files when possible?

    For database applications, it is best to keep application-level values (apart from connection strings) from this in the database rather than in the web.config.  There are some merits as following:

    1. It can be updated easily with normal SQL e.g. Rolling over the current setting to a new value.
    2. It can be used in joins and in other queries easily without the need to pass in parameters.
    3. It can be used to update settings and affect the other applications based on the same database.​​
  48. Do you suffix unit test classes with "Tests"?

    Unit test classes should be suffixed with the word "Tests" for better coding readability.

    ​[TestFixture] public class SqlValidatorReportTest { }

    Bad - Unit test class is not suffixed with "Tests"​

    [TestFixture] public class HtmlDocumentTests { }  ​

    Good - Unit test class is suffixed with "Tests"​

    We have a program called SSW Code Auditor to check for this rule.

  49. Do you use a helper extension method to raise events?

    Enter Intro Text

    Instead of:

    private void RaiseUpdateOnExistingLotReceived()
    {
    if (ExistingLotUpdated != null)
    {
    ExistingLotUpdated();
    }
    }

    ...use this event extension method:

    public static void Raise(this EventHandler @event,
    object sender, T args) where T : EventArgs
    {
    var temp = @event;
    if (temp != null)
    {
    temp(sender, args);
    }
    }
    public static void Raise(this Action @event)
    {
    var temp = @event;
    if (temp != null)
    {
    temp();
    }
    }

    That means that instead of calling:

    RaiseExistingLotUpdated();

    ...you can do:

    ExistingLotUpdated.Raise();

    Less code = less code to maintain = less code to be blamed for ;)​

  50. Do you use a regular expression to validate an email address?

    A regex is the best way to verify an email address.​​

    ​public bool IsValidEmail(string email)
    {
    // Return true if it is in valid email format.
    if (email.IndexOf("@") <= 0) return false;
    if (email.EndWith("@")) return false;
    if (email.IndexOf(".") <= 0) return false;
    if ( ...
    }

    Figure: Bad example of verify email address​​

    public bool IsValidEmail(string email)
    {
    // Return true if it is in valid email format.
    return System.Text.RegularExpressions.Regex.IsMatch( email,
    @"^([\w-\.]+)@(([[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.)|(([\w-]+\.)+))([a-zA-Z]{2,4}|[0-9]{1,3})(\]?)$";
    }

    Figure: Good example of verify email address​​
  51. Do you use a regular expression to validate an URL?

    A regex is the best way to verify an URI.

    public bool IsValidUri(string uri)
    {
    try 

    Uri testUri = new Uri(uri); 
    return true; 

    catch (UriFormatException ex)

    return false; 


    Figure: Bad example of verifying URI​​​

    public bool IsValidUri(string uri) 

    // Return true if it is in valid Uri format.
    return System.Text.RegularExpressions.Regex.IsMatch( uri,@"^(http|ftp|https)://([^\/][\w-/:]+\.?)+([\w- ./?/:/;/\%&=]+)?(/[\w- ./?/:/;/\%&=]*)?"); 

    Figure: Good example of verifying URI 

    You should have unit tests for it, see our Rules to Better Unit Tests for more information.​

  52. Do you use Enums instead of hard coded strings?

    Use Enums instead of hard-coded strings, it makes your code lot cleaner and is really easy to manage.

    EnumBadExample.jpg
    Figure: Bad example - "Hard- coded string" works, but is a bad idea
    EnumGoodExample.jpg
    Figure: Good example - Used Enums, looks good and is easy to manage
  53. Do you use Environment.NewLine to make a new line in your string?

    When you need to create a new line in your string, make sure you use Environment.NewLine, and then literally begin typing your code on a new line for readability purposes.​

    String strExample = "This is a very long string that is \r\n not properly implementing a new line.";

    Bad Example: The string has implemented a manual carriage return line feed pair (\r\n)

    String strExample = "This is a very long string that is " + Environment.NewLine +
    " properly implementing a new line.";

    Good Example: The new line is created with Enviroment.NewLine

    ​​

  54. Do you use good code over backward compatibility?

    Supporting old operating systems and old versions means you have more (and often messy) code, with lots of if or switch statements. This might be OK for you because you wrote the code, but down the track when someone else is maintaining it, then there is more time/expense needed.

    When you realize there is a better way to do something, then you will change it, clean code should be the goal, however, because this affects old users, and changing interfaces at every whim also means an expense for all the apps that break, the decision isn't so easy to make.

    Our views on backward compatibility start with asking these questions:

    • Question 1: How many apps are we going to break externally?
    • Question 2: How many apps are we going to break internally?
    • Question 3: What is the cost of providing backward compatibility and repairing (and test) all the broken apps?

    Let's look at an example:

    We have a public web service /ssw/webservices/postcode/
    If we change the URL of this public Web Service, we'd have to answer the questions as follows:

    • Answer 1: Externally - Don't know, we have some leads:
      We can look at web stats and get an idea. 
      If an IP address enters our website at this point, it tells us that possibly an application is using it and the user isn't just following the links.
    • Answer 2: Website samples + Adams code demo
    • Answer 3: Can add a redirect or change the page to output a warning Old URL. Please see www.ssw.com.au/ PostCodeWebService for new URL

    Because we know that not many external clients use this example, we decide to remove the old web service after some time.

    Just to be friendly, we would send an email for the first month, and then another email in the second month.  After that, just emit "This is deprecated (old)."  We'll also need to update the UDDI so people don't keep coming to our old address.

    We all wish we never need to support old code, but sometimes the world doesn't go that way, if your answer to question 3 scares you, then you might need to provide some form of backward compatibility or warning.

    From: John Liu www.ssw.com.au
    To: SSWALL
    Subject: Changing LookOut settings

    The stored procedure procSSWLookOutClientIDSelect (currently used only by LookOut any version prior to 10) is being renamed to procSSWLookOutClientIDSelect. The old stored procedure will be removed within 1 month.
    You can change your settings either by:

    • Going to LookOut Options -> Database tab and select the new stored procedure
    • Upgrading to SSW LookOut version 10.0 which will be released later today


  55. Do you use Public/Protected Properties instead of Public/Protected Fields?

    Public/Protected properties have a number of advantages over public/protected fields:

    • Data validation
      Data validation can be performed in the get/set accessors of a public property. This is especially important when working with the Visual Studio .NET Designer.
    • Increased flexibility
      Properties conceal the data storage mechanism from the user, resulting in less broken code when the class is upgraded. Properties are a recommended object-oriented practice for this reason.
    • Compatibility with data binding
      You can only bind to a public property, not a field.
    • Minimal performance overhead
      The performance overhead for public properties is trivial. In some situations, public fields can actually have inferior performance to public properties.​

    ​public int Count;

    Figure: Bad code. Variable declared as a Field

    public int Count
    {
    get
    {
    return _count;
    }
    set
    {
    _count = value;
    }
    }

    Figure: Good code. Variable declared as a Property​​

    We agree that the syntax is tedious and think Microsoft should improve this.

  56. Do you use resource file to store all the messages and globlal strings?

    Storing all the messages and global strings in one place will make it easy to manage them and to keep the applications in the same style.

    Code_StoreMessage.jpg
    ​Store messages in the Message.resx

    Catch(SqlNullValueException sqlex)
    {
    Response.Write("The value cannot be null.");
    }

    Bad Example - if you want to change the message, it will cost you lots of time to investigate every try-catch block

    Catch(SqlNullValueException sqlex)
    {
    Response.Write(GetGlobalResourceObject("Messages", "SqlValueNotNull"));
    }

    Better Example - better than the hard code, but still wordy

    Catch(SqlNullValueException sqlex)
    {
    Response.Write(Resources.Messages.SqlValueNotNull); 'Good Code - storing message in resource file.

    Good Example
  57. Do you use resource file to store messages?

    All message is stored in one central place so it's easy to reuse. Furthermore, it is strongly typed - easy to type with IntelliSense in Visual Studio.

    Module Startup Dim HelloWorld As String = "Hello World!" Sub Main() Console.Write(HelloWorld)Console.Read() End Sub End Module

    Bad example of a constant message
    BetterCode_ConstantMessages.gif
    Figure: Saving constant message in Resource

    Module Startup Sub Main() Console.Write(My.Resources.Messages.Constant_HelloWorld) Console.Read() End Sub End Module

    Good example of a constant message


  58. Do you use String.Empty instead of ""?

    Considering the memory management of .NET Framework String.Empty will get higher performance then using "".

    ​public string myString
    {
    get
    {
    return ;
    }
    }

    Figure: Bad code. Low performance​​

    public string myString
    {
    get
    {
    return string.Empty;
    }
    }​

    Figure: Good code. Higher performance

    We have a program called SSW Code Auditor to check for this rule.​

  59. Do you use "using" statement instead of use explicitly "dispose"?

    Don't explicitly use "dispose" to close objects and dispose of them, the "using" statement will do all of them for you. It is another awesome tool that helps reduce coding effort and possible issues.

    SqlConnection conn = null;
    SqlCommand cmd = null;
    try
    {
    conn = new SqlConnection(ConnectionString);
    cmd = new SqlCommand(sql, conn);
    conn.Open();
    cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
    }
    catch(SqlException ex)
    {
    ...
    }
    finally
    {
    if(cmd!=null)
    {cmd.Dispose();}
    if(conn!=null)
    {conn.Dispose();}
    }

    Figure: Bad example of dispose of resources


    FileStream fs = new FileStream(filePath, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Read);
    StreamReader sr = new StreamReader(fs); 

    Figure: Bad example of dispose of resources


    try
    {
    using (SqlConnection conn = new SqlConnection(ConnectionString))
    {
    using (cmd = new SqlCommand(sql, conn))
    {
    conn.Open();
    cmd.ExecuteNonQuery();
    conn.Close();
    }
    }
    }
    catch(SqlException ex)
    {
    ...
    }

    Figure: Good example of dispose of resources

    using(FileStream fs = new FileStream(filePath, FileMode.Open, FileAccess.Read))
    {
    using(StreamReader sr = new StreamReader(fs))
    {
    ...
    }
    }

    Figure: Good example of dispose of resources  ​


  60. Do you warn users before starting a long process?

    You should never start a long process (>30 seconds) without first giving a warning message to warn the user approximately how long it will take.

    lengthyoperation.jpg
    Figure: Good example - Code Auditor message warning this is a long process

    You will need to have 2 things:

    1. A table to record processes containing the following fields:
      • ALogRecord (DateCreated, FunctionName, EmpUpdated, ComputerName, ActiveForm, ActiveControl, SystemsResources, ConventionalMemory, FormsCount, TimeStart, TimeEnd, TimeTaken, RecordsProcessed, Avg, Note, RowGuide, SSWTimeStamp)
    2. A function to change the number of seconds lapsed to words - see the "1 minute, 9 seconds" in the above messagebox - this requires a SecondsToWords() function shown. See our code base.

  61. Do you wrap the same logic in a method instead of writing it again and again whenever it's used?

    Is your code DRY? ​​If a logic (a piece of code) will occur more than once, please make it a method and call it whenever it's used. This will reduce redundancy, decrease maintenance effort, improve efficiency and reusability, and make the code more clear to read.​​​​

    public class WarningEmail
    {
    //...
    public void SendWarningEmail(string pFrom, string pTo, string pCC, string pUser, string pPwd, string pDomain)
    {
    //...
    MailMessage sMessage = new MailMessage();
    sMessage.From = new MailAddress(pFrom);
    sMessage.To.Add(pTo);
    sMessage.CC.Add(pCC);
    sMessage.Subject = "This is a Warning";
    sMessage.Body = GetWarning();
    SmtpClient sSmtpClient = new SmtpClient();
    sSmtpClient.Credentials = new NetworkCredential(pUser, pPwd, pDomain);
    sSmtpClient.Send(sMessage);
    //...
    }
    }
    public class ErrorEmail
    {
    public void SendErrorEmail(string pFrom, string pTo, string pCC, string pUser, string pPwd, string pDomain)
    {
    //...
    MailMessage sMessage = new MailMessage();
    sMessage.From = new MailAddress(pFrom);
    sMessage.To.Add(pTo);
    sMessage.CC.Add(pCC);
    sMessage.Subject = "This is a Error";
    sMessage.Body = GetError();
    SmtpClient sSmtpClient = new SmtpClient();
    sSmtpClient.Credentials = new NetworkCredential(pUser, pPwd, pDomain);
    sSmtpClient.Send(sMessage);
    //...
    }
    }

    Bad Example: Write the same logic repeatedly


    public class WarningEmail
    {
    //...
    public void SendWarningEmail(string pFrom, string pTo, string pCC, string pUser, string pPwd, string pDomain)
    {
    //...
    EmailHelper.SendEmail(pFrom, pTo, pCC, "This is a Warning", GetWarning(), pUser, pPwd, pDomain);
    //...
    }
    }
    public class ErrorEmail
    {
    public void SendErrorEmail(string pFrom, string pTo, string pCC, string pUser, string pPwd, string pDomain)
    {
    //...
    EmailHelper.SendEmail(pFrom, pTo, pCC, "This is an Error", GetError(), pUser, pPwd, pDomain);
    //...
    }
    }
    public class EmailHelper
    {
    public static void SendEmail(string pFrom, string pTo, string pCC, string pSubject, string pBody, string pUser, string pPwd, string pDomain)
    {
    MailMessage sMessage = new MailMessage();
    sMessage.From = new MailAddress(pFrom);
    sMessage.To.Add(pTo);
    sMessage.CC.Add(pCC);
    sMessage.Subject = pSubject;
    sMessage.Body = pBody;
    SmtpClient sSmtpClient = new SmtpClient();
    sSmtpClient.Credentials = new NetworkCredential(pUser, pPwd, pDomain);
    sSmtpClient.Send(sMessage);
    }
    }

    Good Example: Put the same logic in a method and make it reusable​
  62. Use Enum Constants instead of Magic numbers?

    Using "Magic numbers" in your code makes it confusing and really hard to maintain.​​​

    MagicNumberBad.jpg
    Figure: Bad example - "Magic Number" works, but is a bad idea
    MagicNumberGood.jpg
    Figure: Good example - No Magic Number, looks good and is easy to manage​